Gender and Development

What is Gender and Development?

Gender and Development (GAD) is an approach which emphasis is on gender equity; this requires the transformation of the basic rules, hierarchies and practices of public institutions, it incorporates women's agency, their lived experience, and the class and ethnic variations in gendered disadvantage, into their analysis (Kabeer, 1994). A gender approach requires analysis of the forms and the links that gender relations thake and the links between them and the other wider relations in society. The concept of gender and development is abstract and opens up for the realization of women's productive potentials in development (Ostergaard, 1992).

Mission Statement of DAR-GAD Champions

Congruent with the DAR's vision and mission, the champions of Gender and Development (GAD), came up with their mission statement exemplifying their intentions of creating a difference in the lives of men and women in our society. The GAD champion's mission statement is stated as follows:

We are the champions of GAD

We will help create gender responsive and gender - fair communities

We will promote and practice gender sensitivty and accountability in our families, offices, and communities

We will continuously enhance ourselves to become more gender- responsive, both at work and at home.

We will become committed and competent advocates, policy entrepreneurs, and trainers.

  • We will spearhead the design and implementation of distinctive programs and projects, which will:
  • promote the use of gender based tools and gender strategic indicators;
  • facilitate the creation of gender-friendly knowledge base on gender and agriculture;
  • build gender equitable and gender fair ARB organizations; and
  • enable men and women to achieve the fullness of their well-being.

We will be known as passionate and creative prime movers for GAD,

We will actively collaborate with our DAR associates. GAD allies, program institutional partners, ARB organizations, and ARB's to ensure that gender becomes an integral part of everything we do and everything we are.

Together, we will make this happen; together, we will make a difference.

The "we" emphasizes that DAR officials and personnel and the ARB leaders are the prime movers who will initiate the promotions and mainstreaming of GAD in various endeavors. We can only be champions, if we practice being gender-fair everyday in our families, offices and communities. We also believe that enhancing one's self through continuous learning will result in becoming even more committed and competent GAD advocates, confident to speak up to promote the concepts.

The phrase, "together, we will make this happen-together, we will make a difference" emphasizes the need for unity among the DAR people and ARB organizations. The mission will not be just the task of one unit, but will involve each and everyone in DAR.

Legal Mandate

The Department of Agrarian Reform is guided by the following laws, issuances and policies in promoting and undertaking Gender Mainstreaming in the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program.

The 1987 Philippine Constitution, Article 2 (Declaration of Principles and State Policies) Section 21, states that "The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform" and Section 14, provides that "The State shall recognize the role women in nation building and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men.

Republic Act 7192 otherwise known as "Women in Development and Nation Building which mandates all government departments and agencies to review and revise all regulation, circulars, issuances and procedures to remove all gender biases, it further provides that government shall set aside and utilize Overseas Development Assistance (ODAs) for women's programs and activities.

Republic Act 6657 otherwise known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law issued on June 15, 1988, more specifically Chapter X, Section 5 which provides that all qualified women members of the agricultural labor force must be guaranteed and assured of equal rights and ownership of land, shares of farm produce and representation in advisory decision-making bodies. Hence, in compliance with the above-cited governing laws, and to pursue the essence of CARP and ensure that women and men have equal access to the benefits of the CARP and other agrarian laws.

Goals and Strategic Objectives of GAD Mainstreaming

The gender and development (GAD) mainstreaming efforts of the DAR covers two levels: the Department-wide operations and the operationalization of ARB programs and projects Its goal is to achieve gender equity in the agrarian reform areas and in DAR which will contribute to fairer and more meaningful implementation of CARP.

In the long-term, the strategic objectives are:

  • Equal opportunity, access and control of CARP resources by the men and women agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs) and implementors based on their differing needs, interests and capacities;
  • Men and women ARBs and implementors have equitable share in responsibilities decision-making and participation in the processes of CARP implementation as well as in the benefits derived therein

To achieve the goal of GAD mainstreaming, the following key factors should be given preferential attention:

  • recognition that GAD is an integral part of the DAR bureaucracy
  • identification of a "GAD champion" or of a key official who shall advance the cause of GAD
  • identification of strategic unit(s) and program components for mainstreaming
  • development of a pool of trainors and advocates at various levels (manuals, visuals, iec materials…)
  • establishment of indicators and a system for monitoring of GAD mainstreaming
  • establishment of linkages and networks with other institutions (government and non-government) working on GAD
  • participation in national and international events in recognition of the role of women in rural development: National Women's Month; International Women's Day; International Rural Women's Day; World Food Day; Population Week
  • involvement and participation of men in the process to effect change in socio-cultural perception, attitudes and practices

The Wheel of DAR-GAD Mainstreaming

The gender and development (GAD) mainstreaming efforts of the DAR covers two levels: the Department-wide operations and the operationalization of ARB programs and projects Its goal is to achieve gender equity in the agrarian reform areas and in DAR which will contribute to fairer and more meaningful implementation of CARP.

Areas of DAR-GAD Mainstreaming

The six key areas for GAD mainstreaming are interelated and interdependent with each other. This means that the level of performance in one key area has direct effects with the other areas.

The six key areas for GAD mainstreaming are interelated and interdependent with each other. This means that the level of performance in one key area has direct effects with the other areas.

1. Gender awareness building and advocacy

This is the basic and core area because this builds the foundation of gender mainstreaming efforts in the DAR bureaucracy and in the ARB organizations. In here, the major objective is to create awareness and to emphasize that the problem on gender inequality are not rooted on people's own personal inadequacies, but, rather they abound by a social system of institutionalized patterns of discrimination and marginalization against women and girls.

Advocacy, as a crucial undertaking, is the process of creating support and strengthening that support through consensus-building, fostering a favorable climate or having a supportive or enabling environment. Advocacy could be the start in creating gender awareness.

Social marketing is another important element to improve advocacy campaigns and to reach the intended beneficiaries. Social marketing usually sells ideas, set of beliefs or practices. For its wide reach, on a sustained basis, the mass media (television, radio and newspapers) are still considered the most important channel for social marketing. However, there are instances wherein "creative media" which are more interpersonal are recommended. These include community theater performances, walk-in counseling or information centers, seminar-workshops, poster and leaflet campaigns and the ever popular comic strips.

2. Gender-responsive capability and capacity development

This key mainstreaming area is also a gender mainstreaming phase in itself due to its connectivity and its being a "cross cutting" element to all key areas. As above-mentioned, this key area enables and empowers the DAR bureaucracy and the ARB organizations to become GAD champions, who are committed and confident to speak up and promote gender mainstreaming. Gender-sensitive training programs, seminars, forums, workshops are major key tasks. Gender and development should be considered another dimension of all capability building interventions for both the DAR personnel and the ARBs. Trainers and program implementers should consciously and purposively incorporate GAD as a cross-cutting concern for all interventions. Capacitating the DAR and ARB Organizations to conduct gender audit and gender analysis shall be a major task in this key area. Results help define the actual gendered division of labor and the positive and negative impact of development projects which are bases to adjust and add suitable methods so that projects will bring the best results for both men and women.

3. Gender-responsive planning, monitoring and evaluation system and information management

In this key area, the DAR shall put emphasis in installing and operationalizing a gender-responsive planning, monitoring and evaluation system and processes, and the development and utilization of gender-sensitive indicators. It is simply the purposive and conscious integration of the GAD framework into the entire PME system and process of DAR and in the ARB organizations. It rests on the premise that gender is one source of heterogeneity along with education, ethnicity, class and other socio-demographic variables. Considering this makes CARP programs and projects more people-oriented and focused.

The Gender-Sensitive Indicators (GSIs), as a GM tool, will tell where men and women in the DAR and in the ARB organizations are, how they are doing in terms of their condition and position in the household, organization and community; and what DAR need to do considering the practical gender needs and strategic gender interest.

4. Linkaging, networking, alliance building and resource mobilization

This key area dwells on the process of establishing strategic partnership and enhancing resource mobilization efforts which cuts across all the other key areas of gender mainstreaming. Networking for gender mainstreaming includes the establishment of linkages and the formation of joint activities with other gender advocates in governmental and non-governmental organizations, locally and from abroad. On the other hand, resource mobilization refers to a concerted action aimed to support the required resources of a program or plan. These resources may include productive and political resources, and of course, time which are always critical and scarce for women.

5. Fund allocation and logistic support

One of the major requirements in gender mainstreaming is the fund availability. In this key area, DAR shall ensure that mandated annual GAD Budget which is a minimum of five percent of the total budget from the General Appropriations Act be made available for all gender-responsive programs, projects and activities both for DAR personnel and for the ARBs.

Likewise, the Department shall formulate policies/guidelines and implement a gender-sensitive standard operating procedures; gender-fair criteria in hiring, promotion and in representation in various committees and working groups; non-gender biased protection, security and welfare of male and female employees to make DAR a gender-fair work place.

6. Policy review and program enhancements on the three major components of CARP such as Land Tenure Improvement (LTI), Program Beneficiaries Development (PBD), and Agrarian Justice Delivery (AJD)

This key area involves the three major program components of CARP which is the core of agrarian reform. In here, the main focus of interventions are the agrarian reform beneficiaries, but the internal supply chain (DAR personnel at all levels) are equally important. The main premise is that we cannot transform the ARB organizations into becoming a gender equitable and sustainable organization if the DAR implementers are gender blind. Hence, in the policy review and program enhancements, the interwoven gender mainstreaming interventions both for DAR implementers in LTI, PBD and AJD and the ARBs should be evident.

In LTI, policy review shall be prioritized on identification of beneficiaries, generation of certificate of land ownership award, survey services and other land acquisition and distribution processes.